Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) typically includes two cations [potassium (K) and sodium (Na)] and two anions [chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S)]. The DCAD equation most often applied in the field equals: milliequivalents (meq) [(%K divided by 0.039) + (%Na divided by 0.023)]– [(%Cl divided by 0.0355) + (%S divided by 0.016)]/100 grams of dietary dry matter (DM). Considerable research and field application of the DCAD concept have occurred in the last 2 decades (NRC, 2001). Physiologically, DCAD influences the animal’s acid-base homeostasis, Ca status around calving, and mineral element utilization. Much of the early work addressed effects of DCAD on Ca status and metabolic health of late pregnant, transition cows (NRC, 2001; Goff and Horst, 1997; Block, 1994). Also, direct effects of DCAD on lactational performance were examined (Beede, 2005; Hu and Murphy, 2004).
DCAD for late pregnant dry cows
The primary goal in late pregnancy is to provide a ration with a low (less than +5 meq/100 grams of dietary DM) or negative DCAD to reduce the risk of hypocalcemia (low blood Ca) and clinical milk fever around calving. Minimizing the incidence of hypocalcemia and milk fever reduces the incidence of other associated metabolic disorders such as retained fetal membranes, abomasal displacement, and metritis. In many cases, simply using feedstuffs with lower concentrations of K and Na will lower DCAD enough to improve transition cow performance. This also may reduce udder edema. When it is not possible to reduce dietary K and Na enough, supplementation with anions (chloride and sulfate) will reduce DCAD. A target DCAD of -5 to -10 meq may improve transition cow health and performance.
Anion sources to reduce DCAD include the so-called anionic salts such as ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, ammonium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate. Note: Flowers of Sulfur (elemental sulfur) is not bioavailable or bio-reactive and is not effective to reduce DCAD or affect the cow’s physiology, health, or performance. Anionic salts are not very palatable and may reduce feed intake if too much is supplemented. Commercial anion supplements such as those prepared by treatment of feedstuffs with hydrochloric acid or other anions can be effective with less risk to reduce feed intake than anionic salts.
With a DCAD of -5 to -10 meq/100 grams of dietary DM, urine pH of 6.0 to 6.7 indicates that anion supplementation is effective. Urine pH of less than 6.0 indicates it is not necessary to feed so much anion source. Note: Urine pH of dairy cows fed typical rations without anion supplementation (DCAD of +20 meq or greater) is between 7.8 and 8.2, a normal value for ruminants. Even if significant K and Na are removed from the ration and the DCAD is still +20 meq or greater, without anion supplementation, urine pH values will be within the normal range. In this case, the transition performance of cows fed low, positive DCAD rations may be normal. Therefore, DCAD can not be used to predict whether or not a particular ration will predispose late pregnant dry cows to hypocalcemia and other transition disorders. Only when supplemental anions are used to reduce DCAD can urine pH be an indicator of the effectiveness to affect acid-base and Ca status. If the ration is actually -5 to -10 meq and transition cows are eating well, reduced urine pH will be a good indicator of proper anion intake after 3 to 7 days of feeding the ration.
DCAD for lactating cows
Increasing DCAD of lactation rations with supplementation of cations [Na and (or) K] may be beneficial for lactating dairy cows to neutralize tremendous amounts of acids produced in ruminal fermentation and systemic metabolism. The DCAD may be increased by reducing anions or high anion-containing feed ingredients, or by supplementing with sodium bicarbonate or potassium carbonate.
In lactation rations, DCAD between +25 to +30 meq/100 grams of
dietary DM is effective and sufficient to achieve maximum feed intake and milk yield (Beede, 2005). Magnitude and differences in lactational responses were small between +20 to +40 meq. Less than +20 meq or greater than +40 meq was quite detrimental to performance in some studies. As long as DCAD is between the optimal range of +20 to +40 meq, little (or no) benefit is expected by supplementing additional cations. Both Na and K are equally efficacious to lactational performance if a greater DCAD is desired. Thus, use of the cation source with the least cost on a milliequivalent basis is recommended. There are few reported studies trying to determine optimal DCAD with very high producing cows; these studies would be useful.
During heat stress the best DCAD may be at the upper end of the optimal DCAD range. For example, a ration with 1.5% K, 0.5% Na, 0.3% Cl, and 0.25% S, DM basis, has a DCAD of +36 meq/100 grams of dietary DM. If the Cl and S concentrations exceed those listed above, the first formulation step should be to try to reduce Cl and S concentrations in the basal ration by replacement of high anion-containing ingredients with other ingredients. If this is not possible, inclusion of more Na and (or) K from sodium bicarbonate and (or) potassium carbonate can be used to increase ration DCAD. However, doing this may not be sustainable for dairy production and environmental management because higher concentrations of these cations may occur in soils, crops (feeds), and surface and ground waters.
For overall farm nutrient balance, reducing the amounts of ration-supplemented K, Na, Cl and sulfate is a critical consideration. Amounts consumed that are in excess of the cows’ requirements are excreted, and must be recycled effectively via crops or exported, or problems can occur in dairy farming systems.
Note from AminoMax: We will soon be introducing a new AminoMax DCAD product manufactured with ExpandaTherm. This product will have a negative DCAD value of -3,987 meq/kg/dm, has excellent palatability and contains a high bypass methionine amino acid profile. Following rigorous lab testing, this product is currently under final field evaluation on commercial dairy operations.
Go from innovation to differentiation with Expanda Therm
Supreme manufacturing control can drive product flexibility and innovation. In part, this control is what separates AminoMax rumen by-pass products from competitors. This extraordinary level of control means that ExpandaTherm can also be used to develop innovative products with specific characteristics and tight technical specs that cannot be achieved without this control.
For instance, the flexibility and assurance of hitting specifically controlled, heat, moisture, retention times and more,opens the door for myriad product options. Innovations that require unique raw sources, better nutrient consistency, homogeneity or bioavailability, are now possible. ExpandaTherm is the only process globally that can deliver your unique product with absolute consistency batch to batch, season to season.
Let’s talk about your innovative ideas and discover how ExpandaTherm can help deliver products that turn heads and performance that turns into profits.
To learn more about AminoMax products contact Les Berghorn, General Manager at LesB@AminoMax.com or visit AminoMax.com